264 – Ehrlichia

Ehrlichiosis is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of a tick.

Causes

Ehrlichiosis is caused by bacteria that belong to the family called Rickettsiae. Rickettsial bacteria cause a number of serious diseases worldwide, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus. All of these diseases are spread to humans by a tick, flea, or mite bite.

Scientists first described ehrlichiosis in 1990, and have identified two types in the United States:

  • Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Ehrlichia chaffeensis.
  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). It is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum (once called Ehrlichia equi or Ehrlichia phagocytophila).

Ehrlichia bacteria can be carried by the Lone Star tick, the American dog tick, and the deer tick, which can also cause Lyme disease.

In the United States, HME is found mainly in the southern central states and the Southeast. HGE is found mainly in the Northeast and upper Midwest.

Risk factors for ehrlichiosis include:

  • Living near an area with a lot of ticks
  • Owning a pet that may bring a tick home
  • Walking or playing in high grasses

For more info: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001381.htm


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